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Child and Adolescent Mental Health Rajanagarindra Institute is the government organization supported by the Department of Mental Health under the Ministry of Public Health. It was established as the Institute of Child and Adolescent Mental Health on August 29, 2001. In 2003
Academic : ADHD

Attention Deficit / Hyperactivity Disorder ADHD

 Thaweesak Siriratrekha, MD. Child and Teenager Psychiatrist

                  Attention deficit is one of those causes which can be treated to be better. However, if it is ignored, it will have a great impact unavoidably since attention is very important factor affecting learning and daily life.
Symptoms
       Attention Deficit / Hyperactivity Disorder – ADHD is the abnormality of behaviors improper to age and level of development. It occurs before the age of 7, simultaneously expresses at least 6 months and has effects on routines and learning. There are 3 major symptoms as follows.                   
           1) Inattention     
           2) Hyperactivity    
           3) Impulsiveness 
 
Inattention
      1. Have difficulties in gaining attention
      2. Easily be distracted by external stimuli 
      3. Seem indifferent to conversation 
      4. Perform incomplete task or activities when instructed
      5. Avoid activities that require efforts 
      6. Ignore details or doing mistakes with carelessness 
      7. Have difficulties in organizing job or activity 
      8. Frequently lose belongings
      9. Always forget routine activities                       
                        10. Often lose things 
      11. Often forget daily regular routines
 
Hyperactivity              
                            1. Gad and doodle 
                  2. Cannot sit still, often rise and walk 
                  3. Always run around or climb up improper places 
                  4. Inability to play quietly              
                           5. Aster like running engine 
                  6. Talk too much
 
Impulsiveness
              1. Difficulties in waiting
              2. Burst out talking before question is ended.    
                          3. Interrupt or intervene others in conversation or play
 
Causes 
    Attention deficit is caused by cerebral palsy with no explicit causes. It is assumed that the imbalance of some chemicals like dopamine, norepinephrine, serotonin, etc. occurs resulting in inability of self-control even a child is trying hard.                   
                  Most study results suggested that this disease was genetically transferred and found that a child born from parents with attention deficit would have 4 times of a chance to get this disease more than other children.
    In addition, parents who get addicted to alcohol, cigarette, drugs or allergy, are believed to be a cause as well.
Guidelines for Treatment
    Guidelines for the most effective treatment must be a combination of many methods with the cooperation from various parties involved such as family, teacher, and public health staff. Treatments include:      
 
1) Family Empowerment 
  Family should have knowledge, understanding of the nature of disease and how to treat with skills in proper care and positive attitudes towards a child. It is regarded as a deformity that need mutual supports instead of viewing a child as lazy individual- inattention in learning.         
2) Medications
  Nowadays, medications are considered safe and standard treatment with slight side-effects which allow a child to obtain better attention, tranquility and better self-control leading to better learning and better relationship with surrounding people.          
3) Adjusting Behaviors
  Coping with behavioral problems using suitable techniques will sustainably reduce problems in a child, decrease obstacles in learning and train him to prolong attention to activities, carefully listen to commands and learn to wait. Giving compliments or rewards when a child shows appropriate behaviors and controlling these behaviors by limiting benefits or activities he likes are among effective methods.        
 4) Supports for Learning
  A child can join a normal learning class with supportive circumstances in place- not much stimulators. Front seating away from window or door and allowing him to walk, for example, going to the restroom, erasing the board and so on, are recommended. Proper environment in the classroom is that a room is quiet with low stimulators and activities with clear rules for a child to follow accordingly. 
 
 
 
Thaweesak Siriratrekha, MD. Attention Deficit. [Online] 2549;
Available from: URL:  http://www.happyhomeclinic.com/sp03-adhd.htm
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Attention Deficit / Hyperactivity Disorder ADHD
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